## Component 1: Number Sense and Quantity

#### Learning Goal 1.a. Children develop number recognition and counting skills and learn the relationship between numbers and the quantity they represent.

**By 9 months, most children:**

- Hold two objects, one in each hand
- Gesture (e.g., for “more” when eating)

**By 18 months, most children:**

- Use words or gestures for action phrases (e.g., “all gone” and “more”)
- Recognize that there are “one” or “two” of something

**By 24 months, most children:**

- Name their first number word—typically “two” (or they hold up two fingers)
- Bring two treats when asked to get treats for two people
- Match small and large objects (e.g., counting bears to make “Mommy and Me” pairs)

**By 36 months, most children:**

- Verbally count to ten (or in some way indicate a knowledge of words for the numbers from one to ten in sequence) with occasional errors
- Count up to five objects accurately
- Name and identify some written numerals
- Identify numerals as being different from letters

**By 48 months, most children:**

- Quickly name the number in a group of objects, up to four
- Verbally count to 20 (or in some way indicate knowledge of the words for the numbers from 1 to 20 in sequence) with occasional errors
- Use strategies to accurately count sets of up to 10 objects
- Understand that the last number counted represents the number of objects in a set
- Associate a quantity with a written numeral up to five
- Recognize and write some numerals up to 10

**By 60 months, most children:**

- Quickly name the number in a group of objects, up to 10
- Verbally count beyond 20 (or in some way indicate knowledge of numbers beyond 20 in sequence), demonstrating an understanding of the number pattern
- Use strategies to count large sets of objects (more than 10)
- Know the number that comes before or after a specified number (up to 20)
- Recognize and order each written numeral up to 10
- Associate a quantity with a written numeral up to 10