Component 2: Gross Motor Development

Learning Goal 2.b: Children develop traveling skills.

By 9 months, most children:

  • Shift between lying down, sitting, and balancing on their hands and knees
  • Crawl

By 18 months, most children:

  • Move from one place to another by walking
  • Sometimes run instead of walk
  • Walk upstairs holding an adult’s hand or crawl upstairs on hands and knees

By 24 months, most children:

  • Run sturdily
  • Walk up steps with some help
  • Walk backwards
  • Walk on tiptoes

By 36 months, most children:

  • Change direction while walking or running
  • Stop suddenly after running (displaying increased coordination and regulation of large muscles)
  • Climb upstairs using alternating feet; walk downstairs, placing both feet on one step before approaching each subsequent step down
  • Jump forward at least six inches
  • Move in, under, and over objects in the environment with ease

By 48 months, most children:

  • Run up to a ball and kick it while maintaining balance
  • Walk or run around obstacles and corners
  • Walk up and down stairs, alternating feet
  • Understand the position or orientation of their body to other objects and people

By 60 months, most children:

  • Hop forward on one foot without losing balance
  • Walk along a beam or edge
  • Gallop
  • Skip
  • Run with control and balance, making quick turns without losing speed and quick stops
  • Demonstrate how their body can move forward, backward, left and right
  • Demonstrate how their body can move fast or slow