Component 2: History and Geography

Learning Goal 2.a: Children understand concept of time (past, present, and future) and place.

By 9 months, most children:


By 18 months, most children:


By 24 months, most children:

  • Have a general understanding of the passing of time and the meaning of phrases like “not now” and “after lunch”
  • Use spatial cues to find or describe the location of object s (e.g., “behind the book shelf,” “on top of the table”)

By 36 months, most children:

  • Demonstrate an awareness of a daily routine
  • Demonstrates an awareness of familiar buildings and signs and know their meaning (e.g., recognizing a stop sign and knowing the car must stop; says “Hey! There’s the zoo”)

By 48 months, most children:

  • Communicate about personal history (e.g., “When I was little . . . ”)
  • Use such words as “today” or “day” and “night”
  • Communicate with increasing specificity about the location of objects and areas at school and home

By 60 months, most children:

  • Use such terms as “today,” “tomorrow,” and “next time” with some accuracy
  • Use and understand concepts of “before” and “after”
  • Recognize the passage of time through day-and-night cycles and through changing seasons
  • Recognize common features in their immediate environment (e.g., talking about the apple tree outside their back door, or commenting on the river they cross on their ride to school)
  • Create drawings of home and school
  • Create simple maps of home and school and talk about the things that are in certain areas (a bed or a closet in their bedroom)
  • Identify familiar landmarks (police or fire station, grocery store)