Component 2: Number Relationships and Operations

Standard 2.a: Children learn to use numbers to compare quantities and solve mathematical situations.

By the following age ranges, children typically, for example:

  • Hold two objects, one in each hand
  • Explore their fingers and toes
  • Demonstrate early one-to-one correspondence (e.g., filling containers with objects by dropping them in one at a time)
  • In most instances, choose a set that has more of something they prefer over a set that has less, when given the option
  • Create larger and smaller sets of objects by grouping and ungrouping items (e.g., placing and removing rings on a vertical peg)
  • Begin to say or gesture the number “two” when asked how old they are
  • Put objects in accurate, one-to-one correspondence when supported by the context (e.g., placing one plastic egg into each indentation of an egg carton)
  • Compare collections that are quite different in size (e.g., one that is at least twice the other)
  • Notice when another child has more of something and gesture or verbalize “want more”
  • Put groups of objects together and begin to subtract (e.g., share)
  • Use visual cues to approximate which of 2 sets of objects has more
  • Understand that putting 2 sets of objects together makes “more” and taking sets of objects apart will make less
  • Add and subtract with sets of objects smaller than three
  • Understand that a whole is a larger quantity than its parts (e.g., when looking at 3 nests with 3 eggs in each, says a big number such as 8 or 10 to describe how many eggs there are)
  • Use toys and other objects as tools to solve simple addition and subtraction problems when the total is smaller than five
  • Use one-to-one correspondence to compare small sets of similar objects
  • Use counting to compare 2 sets of objects and to determine which set has more, less, or the same than the other
  • Understand that adding one or taking away one changes the number in a group of objects by exactly one
  • Use toys and other objects as tools to solve simple addition and subtraction problems with totals smaller than 10
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