Physical Health and Motor Development

Component 2: Gross Motor Development

Standard 2.a: Children develop large muscle control, strength, and coordination.

By the following age ranges, children typically, for example:

  • Reach and play with toys while sitting
  • Reach for objects and bring them to their mouth
  • Pound on a table and other objects
  • Roll both ways (front to back and back to front)
  • Get into sitting position without help while lying down or crawling
  • Sit without support
  • Squat to pick up toys or other objects
  • Jump with feet apart
  • Carry a toy while walking
  • Stand on one foot with assistance
  • Pull up to a standing position
  • Bend or stoop over to pick up a toy or other object
  • Pull toys behind themselves
  • Climb onto and off couches, chairs, large rocks, or logs
  • Roll a large ball
  • Toss a ball into a large container
  • Sit on and move small-wheeled riding toys
  • Play “catch” using a large rubber ball
  • Throw underhand with some direction
  • Climb on outdoor play equipment
  • Pedal a tricycle
  • Aim and throw a ball over-hand toward a target
  • Bounce a ball
  • Hit a stationary ball with a plastic or foam bat
  • Use arms and legs in a coordinated manner to “pump” on a swing
  • Jump off a bottom step or over small objects with two feet
  • Fill and carry large containers across the yard or room, setting down frequently or with another child’s or adult’s support
  • Catch a small ball with two hands
  • Bounce a ball and catch it
  • Aim and throw or kick a ball with some accuracy
  • Pull another child in a wagon on a path
  • Move up and down on a climbing structure and hangs from a bar
  • Fill and carry a large container with sand or water across the yard or room

Standard 2.b: Children develop traveling skills.

By the following age ranges, children typically, for example:

  • Shift between lying down, sitting, and balancing on their hands and knees
  • Crawl
  • Move from one place to another by walking
  • Sometimes run instead of walk
  • Walk upstairs holding an adult’s hand or crawl upstairs on hands and knees
  • Run sturdily
  • Walk up steps with some help
  • Walk backwards
  • Walk on tiptoes
  • Change direction while walking or running
  • Stop suddenly after running (displaying increased coordination and regulation of large muscles)
  • Climb upstairs using alternating feet; walk downstairs, placing both feet on one step before approaching each subsequent step down
  • Jump forward at least six inches
  • Move in, under, and over objects in the environment with ease
  • Run up to a ball and kick it while maintaining balance
  • Walk or run around obstacles and corners
  • Walk up and down stairs, alternating feet
  • Understand the position or orientation of their body to other objects and people
  • Hop forward on one foot without losing balance
  • Walk along a beam or edge
  • Gallop
  • Skip
  • Run with control and balance, making quick turns without losing speed and quick stops
  • Demonstrate how their body can move forward, backward, left and right
  • Demonstrate how their body can move fast or slow
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