Component 2: Gross Motor Development

Learning Goal 2.a: Children develop large muscle control, strength, and coordination.

By 9 months, most children:

  • Reach and play with toys while sitting
  • Reach for objects and bring them to their mouth
  • Pound on a table and other objects
  • Roll both ways (front to back and back to front)
  • Get into sitting position without help while lying down or crawling
  • Sit without support
  • Pull up to a standing position

By 18 months, most children:

  • Squat to pick up toys or other objects
  • Jump with feet apart
  • Carry a toy while walking
  • Stand on one foot with assistance

By 24 months, most children:

  • Bend or stoop over to pick up a toy or other object
  • Pull toys behind themselves
  • Climb onto and off of couches, chairs, large rocks, or logs
  • Roll a large ball
  • Toss a ball into a large container
  • Sit on and move small-wheeled riding toys

By 36 months, most children:

  • Play “catch” using a large rubber ball
  • Throw underhand with some direction
  • Climb on outdoor play equipment

By 48 months, most children:

  • Pedal a tricycle
  • Aim and throw a ball overhand toward a target
  • Bounce a ball
  • Hit a stationary ball with a plastic or foam bat
  • Use arms and legs in a coordinated manner to “pump” on a swing
  • Jump off a bottom step with two feet
  • Jump with two feet over small objects

By 60 months, most children:

  • Catch a small ball with two hands
  • Bounce a ball and catch it
  • Aim and throw a ball with some accuracy